Commentators often justify age discrimination with misleading statistics that older Americans hold most of the nation’s wealth. In fact, the crushing impact of wealth inequality is felt in this age group just like every other.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development released a study in October 2017 that found the gap between wealthy and low income seniors is wider in the United States than it is in all but two of its 35 member nations — Mexico and Chile. “Inequality has been growing from one generation to the next in the United States,” according to the report.
The OECD reported the top 1% controls 38.6% of America’s wealth.
Furthermore, the OECD study reports that women fare worse in retirement than men, since being paid less for the same work makes saving more difficult.
The OECD recommends policies that would expand employment for the working age population and bolster pension coverage to make sure people have an income stream later in life.
In fact, the National Council on Aging reports that more than 25 million Americans aged 60+ are economically insecure; 21% of married Social Security recipients and 43% of single recipients aged 65+ depend on Social Security for 90% or more of their income. (Social Security Administration [SSA], 2016); One-third of senior households has no money left over each month or is in debt after meeting essential expenses. (Institute on Assets and Social Policy)
The AARP Public Policy Institute reported in June 2015 that the top 10 percent of households in their fifties hold 71 percent of the wealth of all households in this age group. The Institute said:
- The top 10 percent of households aged in their fifties hold 62 percent of total retirement account balances for this age group.
- More than two-fifths of 50+ households have no retirement account savings at all. Of those that do, half have under $100,000 and many have much less.
- Half of households have $12,000 or less in retirement account savings as they approach retirement age.
According to a 2015 report from the Government Accountability Office, 29% of Americans over age 55 have neither retirement savings nor a pension plan.
Demos, a public policy think tank based in Washington, DC, reported in 2014 that in all age groups, including older Americans, the bottom half of the group owns between -8 percent and 6 percent of the age group’s wealth. The top 10 percent owns between 68 percent and 82 percent of the group’s wealth. See Wealth is Distributed Extremely Unevenly Within Every Age Group, Matt Bruening (September 8, 2014).
According to a report by the Global Aging Institute, 18 percent of Americans aged 65 and older had an income of less than 50 percent of the median income for all persons in 2010- a standard threshold in international poverty rate comparisons. This was higher than in the United Kingdom, Canada, Netherlands, Sweden, France, Germany and Italy. (Meanwhile, during the past 25 years, public spending on health care grew at an average annual rate of 4.1 percent, higher than any of other nine countries studied and twice as high as that of Canada, Germany, Sweden and Italy).
Most Severe for Women & Minorities
A 2013 study by the Economic Policy Institute , a nonprofit, nonpartisan think tank, documents alarming economic insecurity among older Americans, especially women. The EPI found that:
- Women are 10.7 percentage points more likely to fall below two times the supplemental poverty threshold than men (52.6 versus 41.9 percent).
- The majority of older blacks and Hispanics are economically vulnerable: 63.5 percent of blacks and 70.1 percent of Hispanics. By comparison, 43.8 percent of whites are economically vulnerable.
Age Discrimination and Poverty
Lack of wealth arguably is a more severe problem for older workers who face epidemic age discrimination in hiring and have less time remaining in the workplace to accumulate wealth. Older people have a hard time both keeping and finding work as a result of age discrimination. Once jobless, they disproportionately experience long-term unemployment compared to younger workers. Older workers often are dumped into chronic unemployment, low-paid part-time work, and, ultimately, a penurious retirement.
The Social Security Administration reports the median income of individual males aged 65 and older was $29,327 in 2013 compared to $16,301 for individual females. Median means that half had a higher income and half had a lower income.
These findings correspond to a chart published by Money Magazine which found that women are almost twice as likely as men to live below the poverty line during retirement, with single and minority women struggling the most. (See chart below).
Life below the poverty line (Source: GAO analysis of Census data for 2012)
|Population||Male Poverty rate||Female poverty rate|
|All 65 and older||6.6%||11%|
Poverty is a silent killer
Having sufficient income in retirement provides access to good nutrition and medical care. Older Americans with sufficient income live longer than their poor counterparts. In 2014, a Brookings Institution study found that men born between 1920 and 1940 who survived to age 55 and were in the bottom tenth of the income distribution could expect to live to age 79.2, while men in the top tenth of the income distribution could expect to age 89.3. One reason for the difference is lack of resources to manage chronic disease.
The Growth of Inequality
The gap in wealth equality has grown exponentially in the the United States.
BUSINESS INSIDER’S CHART ON INCOME INEQUALITY IN THE UNITED STATES OVER THE PAST FORTY YEARS.